There are a lot of different kinds of wheat available so to get the most out of your cooking here’s a quick outline of the different sorts of flour available and how to use them.

Grain
Grains is made up of three portions: the germ, the bran, and the endosperm, that are ground down to make different types of flour.

Wheat, white

  • Has a low fiber and protein content
  • Can be used to cook almost anything

Wheat, whole

  • Has a high fiber and protein content
  • Can be used to cook almost anything

Wheat, bleached

  • It is bleached with either chlorine gas or benzoyl peroxide
  • The curing process is sped up, leaving the flour with a softer texture
  • It is best for making cookies, pie crusts, quick breads, muffins, and pancakes.

Wheat, all-purpose (plain)

  • It can be stored at room temperature
  • Has a low fiber and protein content
  • Varieties available can be bleached or unbleached
  • Can be used to cook almost anything

Wheat, bread

  • High gluten and protein content
  • Best used in bagels, pizza dough, pretzels, and bread

Wheat, pastry

  • It has a fine texture
  • It has a low protein content
  • It is best used in pie crusts, breadsticks, pound cakes, and muffins.

Wheat, cake

  • It has a low protein and gluten content
  • It has a very fine consistency
  • Traditionally bleached to allow for better liquid absorption
  • It is best used in tender cakes

Wheat, 00

  • It has a finer consistency than most other flours
  • It is best used in pasta and thin crusts

Semolina

  • It is made from durum wheat
  • It has a high gluten content
  • Best used for making pasta and gnocchi

Alternative
These flours are made from various other grains, seeds and nuts

Spelt

  • Comes from the same grain family as wheat
  • Made from an ancient grain
  • It is found to be easier to digest for those with a sensitivity to wheat
  • It is a possible substitute for wheat flours, with slight changes to the liquid content of recipes

Rye

  • It has a low gluten content
  • It is best used in bread

Buckwheat

  • It is gluten free
  • It has a high protein and fiber content
  • Best used for pancakes and noodles

Barley

  • It is low in gluten
  • Has a high fiber and protein content
  • It is best used for sweet baked goods

Rice

  • It is gluten free
  • It is best for making sponge cakes, noodles, fritters, and tempura batters

Oat

  • It is gluten free
  • Best used in quick breads and cookies

Amaranth

  • Made from an ancient grain
  • It is gluten free
  • Best used by itself for thickening sauces or breading
  • For baked goods it is best used as about 25 percent of the total flour content

Chickpea

  • Can be used as an egg substitute when mixed with an equal amount of water
  • It is gluten free
  • Has a high protein content
  • It can substitute wheat based flours

Quinoa Flour

  • It is gluten free
  • Has a high protein and fiber content

Almond

  • Has a high protein content
  • It is gluten free but considered a moderate FODMAP

Flaxseed

  • It is gluten free
  • Has a high fiber content

Soy

  • Has a high protein and fiber content
  • It is gluten free
  • Best used for quick breads and cookies